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7^e 

THOREAU SOCIETY 



BULLETIN 



The Thoreau Society, Inc., is 
an informal gathering of stu- 
dents and followers of Henry- 
David Thoreau. Professor Reginald 
Cook, Middlebury, Vt., President; 
Mr. Robert Needham, Concord, 
Mass., Vice-President; and Walter 
Harding, State University, Gene- 
seo, N.Y. 14454, Secretary-Trea- 
surer. Annual membership, $2.00; 
Life membership, $50.00. Address 
communications to the secretary. 



THOREAU 




BULLETIN ONE HUNDRED-TITO 



U.S ~ 5 ctm 
THE 1968 ANNUAL MEETING .... 

It will be held in Concord, Mass., on Sat- 
urday, July 13, 1968, beginning at 10:30 
a.m. The presidential address, delivered by 
Prof. R. L. Cook will be entitled "West of 
Walden." The speaker of the day will be 
Hal Borland, author of HILL COUNTRY HARVEST 
and many other nature books and of many of 
the nature editorials in the NEW YORK TIMES. 

Russell Harris (85 Old Norwich Road, 
Quaker Hill, Conn.) suggests that the annual 
meeting start off with a climb of Red Hill 
in Moultenboro, New Hampshire, a mountain 
which Thoreau reports climbing in his jour- 
nal for July 5, I858. Anyone interested in 
joining Mr. Harris in this climb on Thurs- 
day, July 11th should get in touch with him 
at the above address. If the project works 
out as well as it promises, we might well 
make climbing a new Thoreau mountain each 
year a regular part of the annual meeting. 

K0DACHR0ME PICTURE CONTEST 

Members of the Society are invited to sub- 
mit Kodachrome transparencies to an experi- 
mental contest that will be a feature of 
the annual meeting program on July 13 at 
Concord, Mass. Subject matter can be any- 
thing pertaining to Thoreau, or having 
a Thoreau reference. 

Not over four 35-mm slides may be submitted 
by one person. The Contest Committee will 
make a preliminary selection from the 
slides submitted prior to June 1. There 
will be a scheduled hour in the afternoon 
of the meeting day for all interested per- 
sons to ballot for top three choices. The 
winning slides and others of special inter- 
est will be projected during the evening 
program. 

Kodachromes should be mailed before June 1 
to Robert F. Needham, 11 Walden Terrace, 
Concord, Mass. 01742. They will be return- 



WINTER, 1968 



ed after the meeting. Please enclose return 

postage if not able to attend the meeting. 

Roland Robbins, Edwin Teal e, Robert Needham, 

Chairman. 

THOREAU' S FAVORITE FARMER by Alan Seaburg 

Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo 
Emerson had a "gray-suited neighbor" who 
lived "under the hill." His name was 
Edmund Hosmer and his occupation was farm- 
ing. He has been termed Thoreau's favorite 
Concord farmer, but this is open to ques- 
tion since the evidence from Thoreau's own 
pen suggests that he had a deeper liking 
for another farmer, George Minott. Yet 
there is no doubt that Thoreau was extreme- 
ly fond of his gray-suited neighbor as a 
reading of his journal and letters indi- 
cates. In his journal entry for July 6, 
1852, he credits Hosmer with being "the 
most intelligent farmer in Concord, and 
perchance in Middlesex"^ county which is 
high praise from someone as sharp in inter- 
preting men as was Thoreau. This alone 
justifies a biographical study of Hosmer. 
A person so intelligent is not easily come 
by in the nineteenth or twentieth centuries. 
The journal contains, as it does for other 
neighbors such as John Goodwin and George 
Melvin, enough Hosmer passages so that 
when they are glued with other references 
one has an attractive photo of Edmund 
Hosmer as he must have been known in his 
day. The purpose of this essay then, is 
to present a portrait not of Thoreau's 
favorite farmer but of a man he admired 
and liked and who has been mostly forgotten 
today. 

Edmund Hosmer (his parents named him 
after Edmund Burke) was born to John and 
Mary Vassall Prescott Hosmer on October 10, 
1798 in the town of Concord. Here he grew 
up. He received his basic education at 
Westford Academy and planned to continue 
his studies at Harvard College. However, 
his health was poor so instead of attend- 
ing a land college he went to sea on a 
friend's ship for his further training. 
After three months he sought the stability 



to be found in Concord, returned home and 
bought a farm with his cousin. This did not 
work out, so he sold his share and purchased 
a farm on the road leading to the town of 
Lincoln. In 1652 he changed his farming 
location for the last time, purchasing the 
farm of the late Humphrey Hunt on the 
Lowell Road. He was a prosperous farmer a 
fact to which Thoreau serves as a witness 
even though not always an approving one. 
As he wrote his disciple Daniel Ricketson 
in 1&55: "Hosmer counts his coppers."^ - 

Edmund's granddaughter, Mary Hosmer Brown, 
in her book Memories of Concord , tells us 
that he "was a short man and light in weight" 
and that he "walked with a slow, deliberate 
step."-' He married Sally Pierce on October 14, 
1823, according to the rite of the venerable 
Reverend Ezra Ripley. Between 1824 and 1839 
their family grew by ten. Unlike many women, 
this population explosion did not wear Sally 
out and she and her husband shared more than 
fifty years together. Being the father of 
so many, perhaps explains why Hosmer served 
some time as Superintendent of the Unitarian 
Sunday school and why the town drafted him 
to school committee duties. 

In his Houses and People of Concord. Massa - 
chusetts . Edward Jarvis described Hosmer as 
"in the habit of reading much and thinking 
more" and that he "talked freely. He was 
much of a philosopher and was very suggestive 
in his conversation."' Emerson's son, Edward, 
in his book Emerson in Concord also testi- 
fies to the philosophic and intelligent 
strain in Hosmer: 

Mr. Edmund Hosmer, a farmer of the older 
New England type, thrifty and sturdy, 
conservative yet independent, was Mr. 
Emerson's neighbor for many years, and 
during that time his adviser and helper 
in his rustic affairs. For his character 
and opinion Mr. Emerson had great 
respect, and in his walks he liked to go 
by Mr. Hosmer's farm and find him 
ploughing in his field where they would 
have a chat on matters of agriculture, 
politics or philosophy. 
Emerson so respected Hosmer that he presented 
a copy of Nature to him upon its publication 
in 1836, and always invited him to the Sunday 
evening conversations for "serious talk" 
which he held in his home. One such "talk" at 
which Thoreau and Hosmer were present was 
recorded by Emerson in his journal in this 
fashion: 

At the "teachers' meeting" last night 
my good Edmund after disclaiming any 
wish to difference Jesus from a human 
mind suddenly seemed to alter his tone 
and said that Jesus made the world and 
was the Eternal God. Henry Thoreau merely 
remarked that "Mr. Hosmer had kicked the 
pail over."° 
Now that sounds like a comment that Mr. Thor- 
eau would utter. 



He made other observations concerning 
his friend Hosmer from the simple statement 
that he was "haying, but inclined to talk 
as usual" 1 '-' to reporting in a letter to 
Emerson in I848 that "Mr. Hosmer who is 
himself again, and living in Concord — has 
just hauled the rest of your wood — amount- 
ing to about 10i cords." 11 Mulling over 
the lecturers that the Concord Lyceum 
hired, he decided in I85I that Hosmer or 
George Minott would be far superior and 
stated flatly to his journal that he 
"would rather hear them decline than most 
of these hirelings lecture." 1 ^ Yet he 
found Hosmer no god and his approach to 
life essential disappointing. 

I am disappointed that Hosmer, the 
most intelligent farmer in Concord, 
and perchance in Middlesex, who ad- 
mits that he has property enough for 
his use without accumulating more, and 
talks of leaving off hard work, let- 
ting his farm, and spending the rest 
of his days easier and better, cannot 
yet think of any method of employing 
himself but in work with his hands; 
only he would have a little less of 
it. Much as he is inclined to specu- 
lation in conversation — giving up any 
work to it for the time — and long- 
headed as he is, he talks of working 
for a neighbor for a day now and then 
and taking his dollar. He "would not 
like to spend his time sitting on the 
mill-dam." He has not even planned 
an essentially better life. ^ 
Even Thoreau 's rustic neighbors of whom he 
had a deep appreciation could not measure 
up to his standard for the human animal. 
Still, it was Hosmer and three of his 
sons who with other acquaintances helped 
Thoreau to set up the frame of his house 
beside Walden. It was also Hosmer who when 
he lived beside the pond would come to 
visit and talk on Sunday afternoons in the 
winter. Walden gives us the savor of one 
such conversation: 

We talked of rude and simple times, 
when men sat about large fires in cold 
bracing weather, with clear heads; 
and when other dessert failed, we 
tried our teeth on many a nut which 
wise squirrels have long since aban- 
doned, for those which have the thick- 
est shells are commonly empty. ^ 
It is true, the nut of life is hard to crack 
and most people find theirs emptied when 
they finally are able to penetrate its 
butternut shell. Mary Hosmer Brown gives 
us yet another peek at these Sunday visits 
to Walden by Hosmer. 

On a Sunday afternoon the children 
loved to go to the Walden shack. Thor- 
eau sat at his desk, Grandfather was 
given a chair, while they arranged 
themselves along the edge of the cot 



bed, the youngest child still remember- 
ing that her feet couldn't quite reach 
the floor. If the conversation grew 
too abstruse or they were tired of sit- 
ting still, one by one they slipped 
out to amuse themselves in the woods. 
They might be rewarded later by a 
glimpse of friendly animals, or Mr. 
Thoreau would give them a row on the 
pond. 5 

This still sounds like a pleasant way to 
spend an afternoon. 

The granddaughter relates many Thoreau 
visits to the Hosmer home. Henry came espe- 
cially on stormy days because he knew that 
the bad weather would keep Edmund indoors 
and that he would be ready for some conversa- 
tion. Mrs. Hosmer told hergrandchild that 
the two men would get so excited over an 
issue that they would talk up to twelve 
o'clock and that sometimes Thoreau would 
come round the next night to continue the 
discussion. Again the children liked to 
have him visit for he told them tales of 
the woods and read them many stories. One 
little girl who later became a teacher 
told Mary Brown that she never forgot the 
way Thoreau read to them and often recalled 
his "melodious voice and the wonderful 
sense of rhythm he could impart as he read" 
when she repeated the same tales to her 
school children. 

One of Thoreau's common practices with 
his town associates was to salvage from 
them any historical facts he could. When 
Hosmer was tearing down the old Hunt house, 
Thoreau hurried over to "get one more sight 
of »17 it. Once they were talking about the 
story of the Lee house and Hosmer remembered 
hearing his father say that Dr. Lee himself 
put on that upper story. Hosmer also was 
able to tell him that his father recalled 
"when there was but one store in Concord, 
and that the little office attached to Dr. 
Heywood's house." In 1858 he noted in the 
journal: 

Walked along the dam and the broad 
bank of the canal with Hosmer. He 
thought this bank proved that there 
were strong men here a hundred years 
ago or more, and that probably they 
used wooden shovels edged with iron, 
and perchance home-made, to make that 
bank with, for he remembered and had 
used them. Thus rapidly we skip back to 
the implements of the savage. Some call 
them "shod shovels." ° 
Hosmer was mined for more than historical 
data, however. 

He was valued because he whittled "his 
own axe-helve"; because there was a rill 
between his house and that of Simon Brown 
which was unusual in that it ran all night 
but was dry most of the day except in 
cloudy weather; and because he once kept a 
gray squirrel which "would go off to the 



woods every summer, and in the winter come 
back and into his cage, where he whirled 
the wire cylinder. He would be surprised 
to see it take a whole and large ear of 
corn and run out a broken window and up 
over the roof of the corn-barnwith it, and 
also up the elms." ^ Anyone involved in 
such interesting activities was sure to be 
a favorite of Thoreau. 

There was the occasion when Thoreau 
"blowed" on Hosmer's horn. "I asked if I 
should do any harm if I sounded it. He said 
no, but I called Mrs. Hosmer back, who was 
on her way to the village, though I blowed 
it but poorly." One cannot help but won- 
der what comments Mrs. Hosmer made to the 
two of them. On November 22, 1851, he spot- 
ted Edmund turning over a stone and went 
over to investigate what lay under it. 
"Crickets and ants still lively, which had 
gone into winter quarters there apparent- 
ly. " 2 3 a few days later they talked about 
rain. 

When surveying in the swamp on the 
20th last, at sundown, I heard the 
owls. Hosmer said: "If you ever minded 
it, it is about the surest sign of 
rain that there is. Don't you know 
that last Friday night you heard them 
and spoke of them, and the next day 
it rained?" This time there were other 
signs of rain in abundance. "But night 
before last, said, "when you were 
not here, they hooted louder than 
ever, and we have had no rain yet." 
At any rate, it rained hard the 21st, 
and by that rain the river was raised 
much higher than it has been this 
fall. 2 ^ 
Perhaps our modern weather men need to hire 
as assistants owls? Beside his bird beliefs, 
Hosmer had faith in the "medicinal proper- 
ties" of a special spring he had discovered 
about a half a mile from his home. He often 
made the trip to it for a drink of its 
health restoring waters. It might have 
helped him to live to the old age he reach- 
ed. Several times he complained to Thoreau 
of being tired and ready for a period of 
solid rest. 

Found Hosmer carting out manure from 
under his barn to make room for the 
winter. He said he was tired of farm- 
ing, he was too old. Quoted Webster 
as saying that he had never eaten the 
bread of idleness for a single day, 
and thought that Lord Brougham might 
have said as much with truth while 
he was in the opposition, but he did 
not know that he could say as much 
of himself. However, he did not wish 
to be idle, he merely wished to rest. 
This conversation took place in 1851, a 
little more than thirty years before 
Hosmer secured that final rest. He did 
not die until October 14, 1881. 



25 



Thoreau* s rest came many years before his 
own. Mary Hosmer Brown in Memories of Con - 
cord sketches their final meeting. Accord- 
ing to her account, Henry, as he lay near 
death, asked Hosmer to come and spend the 
night with him. The next day he died. "When 
Grandfather said, f I heard the robins sing 
as I camealong, ' Thoreau answered, 'This 
is a beautiful world, but soon I shall see 
one that is fairer. ,n2 ° He also said, "I 
have so loved nature." ' Before Hosmer left, 
Thoreau had Sophia give him a final present- 
one of his books. What better gift did 
Thoreau have to give his friend at their 
parting? 

Thoreau and Hosmer met on many levels and 
their intercourse ranged from owls to philo- 
sophic matters. How does one distill its 
true meaning. Simply by letting Thoreau him- 
self do the job. He put his one finger on 
the essence of their relationship surely 
and clearly when he wrote: 

Hosmer is overhauling a vast heap of 
manure in the rear of his barn, turn- 
ing the ice within it up to the light; 
yet he asks despairingly what life is 
for, and says he does not expect to 
stay here long. But I have just come 
from reading Columella, who describes 
the same kind of spring work, in that 
to him new spring of the world, with 
hope, and I suggest to be brave and 
hopeful with nature. Human life may 
be transitory and full of trouble, but 
the perennial mind, whose survey ex- 
tends from that spring to this spring, 
from Columella to Hosmer, is superior 
to change. I will identify myself with 
that which did not die with Columella 
and will not die with Hosmer. 5 
In this sense, then, Hosmer is indeed Thor- 
eau's favorite Concord farmer. 

Henry David Thoreau, Correspondence (New 
2 York, 1958), 146. 

Ibid . . 146. 
•^Henry David Thoreau, Journal (New York: 

Dover, 1963), IV, 194. 
^Thoreau, Correspondence . 390. 
->Mary Hosmer Brown, Memories of Concord 
6 (Boston, 1926), 99. 
Josephine Latham Swayne (Ed.), The Story 
of Concord Told by Concord Writers (Boston, 
1906), 211. 
Zlbid .. 211. 
Edward Waldo Emerson, Emerson in Concord 
(Boston, 1889), 136-7. 

Ralph Waldo Emerson, Journals (Cambridge, 
Mass., 1965), IV, 395. 
lu Thoreau, Journal . IV, 194. 
•'--'-Thoreau, Correspondence. 209. 
12 Thoreau, Journal , III, 128. 
13-rhoreau, Journal, IV, 194-5. 
^•Henry David Thoreau, The Variorum Walden 
(New York, 1963), 202. 
-'-'"Brown, Memories of Concord , 98. 



l^Ibid., 97. 

-■-^Thoreau, Journal . XII, 36. 
ij-°Thoreau, Journal, IX, 109. 

^Thoreau, Journal , XI, 228. 

2 °Thoreau, Journal . VII, 197. 

^Thoreau, Journal . XIV, 161 

22 Thoreau, Journal . IV, 194. 

^Thoreau, Journal . Ill, 128. 
24ibid., 130-1. 
glbid., 35. 

Brown, Memories of Concord . 105-6. 
- 2 Zlbid., 106. 

25 TVir,Y>»an .Tnnynal VTTT 9I.Z. 



27 Jbid., 106. 

26 Thoreau, Journal . VIII, 245. 

I am indebted to Mrs. Marcia Moss and the 

Concord Free Public Library for research 

assistance. 

REGINALD L. COOK by Sidney Clark 

Reginald Cook was born in East Mendon, 
Massachusetts, where he grew up on a farm 
and eventually went to Middlebury College in 
the Green Mountains of Vermont. At Middle- 
bury he came in contact with a teacher who, 
as Dr. Cook says, "made Thoreau a reality 
to me." Dr. Cook says that the reading of 
Walden was "one of the chief enkindling 
experiences" in his early life. 

After Middlebury, "Doc," as he is known 
to his many friends, taught for a while at 
Wyoming Seminary in Pennsylvania and then 
won a Rhodes Scholarship. For the next three 
years he studied at Exeter College, Oxford 
University, and took his degree in 1929 in 
the Honors School in English Literature. 

Since 1929, he has been teaching at Middle- 
bury College and remained department chair- 
man of American Literature until 1967. He 
is now Dana Professor of American Literature. 
In 1946 he was appointed Director of the 
Bread Loaf School of English, which position 
he held until August 1964. 

Reginald Cook has written on Thoreau — The 
Concord Saunterer and Passage to Walden , 
and has also written on Robert Frost — The 
Dimensions of Robert Frost . He has contri- 
buted numerous articles and essays, chiefly 
on these two great Americans, to numerous 
publications. He is at present at work on 
manuscripts not related to Frost or Thoreau. 

During the 1930' s, "Doc" travelled all 
over the United States, accompanied by his 
wife. Of these trips, Dr. Cook says, "/We/ 
travelled extensively over the United States 
so that we could come to understand something 
about the country whose literature I was 
teaching. We became more familiar with the 
Rocky Mountain country and the Pacific area 
than with the eastern seaboard. We spent 
some time with the Pueblo Indians in the 
Rio Grande Valley and with some of the 
Navajos in the Gallup area of New Mexico. 
The West fascinates us and when we walk, 
like Thoreau, we like to walk toward the 
west." 

Of Vermont, Dr. Cook says, "Up here in 



Vermont we have a country to our liking 
with the mountain ranges to the east and 
west always in sight and here we have fine 
Alpine air that drifts off the mountain 
into the high valleys and intervales. This 
is beautiful country any season of the year. 
For over thirty years now we have followed 
the seasons in their passage up in this 
country." 

THE CAIRN AT WALDEN POND by Raymona Hull 

Probably few of the thousands of visitors 
to Thoreau's cairn at Walden Pond have ever 
given much thought to the tradition behind 
such a memorial. It is not at all certain 
that Thoreau himself, classical scholar 
that he was, knew the probable origin of 
such heaps of stone. Did even Bronson Alcott, 
who in 1872 started the first cairn here, 
realize where the tradition may have come 
from? (See Roland Robbins' description, 
pp. 3-4 of Discovery at Walden .) 

According to authorities on ancient mytho- 
logies and religions, heaps of stones seem 
to have served several purposes in pre- 
historic times. The simplest account, given 
by Martin Nilsson (in Greek Folk Religion , 
pp. 8-9), describes the earliest peasants 
of Greece as using stones or piles of stones 
as markers for boundaries of properties, 
especially at crossroads. When a peasant 
passed by such a stone heap, he was likely 
to add a stone to the pile. Sometimes tall 
stones were placed on top of the heap. An 
early Greek peasant is supposed to have 
named an Arcadian pastoral god Hermes after 
the word for this stone heap — herma — in 
which the spirit of the god dwelt. The tall 
stone on top was then labeled a herm. A 
Greek vase painting shows an offering being 
placed on top of such a heap, for gradually 
the Greeks had come to make sacrifices to the 
spirit of the god which was "embodied" in 
the heap. Travelers welcomed such markers 
to guide them on their way, until eventually 
the god whose spirit dwelled in the stone 
heap became the god of travelers, of cross- 
roads, and of boundaries. The use of such 
markers continued in both country and city. 
Finally in the heyday of Athens stone pil- 
lars with crude heads of Hermes and with 
inscriptions on them came to serve as house- 
hold markers and were still regarded as 
sacred. 

From the Greeks and from other early peo- 
ples we find a second association — that of 
the stone heap with a grave, for which the 
herm . or large stone on top, served as a 
tombstone. In countries where wind easily 
blows the sand away, stones are the most 
logical weights for the soil. Whether burial 
customs involved inhumation, as in shaft 
graves, or cremation, with ashes placed in 
jars, the custom of the stone heap and the 
tombstone remained the same; and the same 



god, Hermes, protected the souls of the 
dead. In fact, he is supposed to have been 
appointed by Zeus to conduct the souls of 
the dead to the underworld. Though other 
gods were from time to time associated with 
stone heaps, Hermes, messenger of the gods, 
seems to have been the one whose name became 
inseparable from the tradition of the cairn 
and the tombstone. 

The custom of throwing a stone upon a 
heap seems to have had various motives in- 
volved, even though the purpose was the 
universal one of bringing good luck. One 
story says that the myth of Hermes' trial 
by the gods for the killing of Argus (hun- 
dred-eyed monster set to guard Io, the 
maiden of whom Hera, queen of the gods, was 
jealous) was responsible for the tradition 
of the tossing of stones. The gods acquitted 
Hermes by throwing down their voting-pebbles 
at his feet until a pile of stones grew. 
(See p. 88 of W.K. Guthrie's The Greeks and 
Their Gods . ) From then on it seems to have 
become a custom that a wayfarer who wanted 
good luck would add a stone to a cairn 
whenever he found one on his path. 

Such an aetiological account is typical 
of the Greeks' way of explaining customs 
that have since been explored by the anthro- 
pologists. The story of Hermes* trial ties 
in very well with Sir James Frazier's ana- 
lysis (See The Golden Bough , pp. 290-291) 
of the primitive concept of purification 
by means of transfer of evil. The version 
of the trial in Frazier's book is that the 
stones flung at Hermes were not only voting- 
pebbles, but the means whereby the gods 
freed themselves "from pollution contracted 
by bloodshed." From this piling up of stones 
at the god's feet came the custom, says Sir 
James, of building such piles at wayside 
images of Hermes. 

Apparently either a stick or a stone, 
according to early accounts, could be used 
as a means for an individual to free him- 
self from evil by transferring the evil to 
the object. There was even a belief in ones 
ability to transfer his weariness from him- 
self to a small stone. It became particu- 
larly a custom for passers-by to toss a 
stone on a spot where some person had come 
"to a violent end" — not necessarily at a 
grave. However, as is pointed out, the 
custom of grave cairns has not necessarily 
meant the graves of those who came to a 
violent end. For example, in Africa, Hotten- 
tots have tossed "a stone, a bush, or a 
fresh branch" on a grave for good luck. 

Sir James Frazier's conclusion is that 
there are so many conflicting accounts of 
the custom of adding sticks or stones to 
existing piles that it seems almost impos- 
sible to base them all on any one principle. 
To ward off a spirit, to cast away evil or 
weariness, to acquire good luck might con- 
ceivably be motives stemming from a single 



origin, but it is not possible to prove 
such a theory. 

In the case of Thoreau it seems most 
pleasant to think of adding stones for good 
luck. Certainly one can scarcely conceive 
of wanting to quiet Thoreau* s spirit! As 
for the superstition of transferring evil 
to a stone, readers of Walden need no 
answer to such a proposition. Whatever the 
origin of this very old tradition, Thoreau 
would have been pleased, in spite of his 
dislike for monuments and memorials, to be 
remembered by an ancient pagan custom. 

The story of Hermes and Argus is a fan- 
tasy with an appropriate touch. It was 
Hermes' long tale of Pan that closed in 
sleep all of Argus' hundred eyes and enabled 
Hermes to kill the monster guardian and 
free Io. Pan, the god of pastoral life and 
of the woods, was supposed to have been 
Hermes' son. In her poem written in the 
spring of 1862, Louisa May Alcott wrote of 
Thoreau, "Pan is dead." 
Indiana University of Pennsylvania. 
Bibliography: 
Frazier, Sir James. The New Golden Bough . 

Edited with notes and foreword by Theodor 

H. Gaster. Garden City: Doubleday Anchor, 

1961. 
Guthrie, W.K.C. The Greeks and Their Gods . 

Boston: Beacon Press, 1962. 
Nilsson, Martin P. Greek Folk Religion . 

York: Harper Torchbooks, 1961. 
Robbins, Roland W. Discovery at Walden . 

Concord, Mass: R. Robbins, c. 1947. 



New 



GRIN AND BEAR IT 



By Lichty 




"To most people this is just a saloon, Houlihan . . . 
but to me, this is my Walden Pond!" 

GRIN AND BEAR IT by George Lichty, 
courtesy Rochester Democrat and Chronicle 
and Publishers-Hall Syndicate. 



DO YOU OWN A THOREAU MANUSCRIPT? . . . 

Work on the new complete edition of Thoreau 1 s 
writings sponsored by the National Humanities 
Foundation, the Modern language Association, the 
Center for Editions of American Authors, and Prince- 
ton University Press continues apace with the first 
volume ( Walden . edited by J. Lyndon Shanley) nearly 
ready for the press. You as Thoreauvians could be 
of great help to the editors if you would notify 
them of the existance of any stray Thoreau manu- 
scripts, particularly those bound into the front of 
the 1906 Houghton Mifflin "Manuscript Edition" of 
Thoreau 1 s WRITINGS. In order to make their editing 
as accurate as possible, the new editors are try- 
ing to collate such manuscripts with their texts. 
If you know of any such manuscripts, please let 
Walter Harding, Editor-in-chief, The Thoreau Edi- 
tion, State University College, Geneseo, N.Y. 
14454, know of their existance. 

NOTES AND QUERIES . . . 

Earl L. Hunsaker, 915 East Eleven Mile Road, Mad- 
ison Heights, Mich. 4.8071, is compiling a check- 
list of the varieties of first day covers of the 
Thoreau stamp and is eager to know of unusual ones. 
For a self-addressed stamped envelope he will be 
glad to send you his preliminary list. The final 
list we hope to publish in the bulletin. 

Spea&ng of the Thoreau stamp, according to 
STAMPS for Octo. 28, 1967, at least one sheet has 
been found wrongly perforated so that the word 
"Thoreau" appears at the bottom rather than the 
top of the stamp. 

The State University College at Geneseo, N.Y., 
will conduct its second Thoreau Seminar, for grad- 
uate and advanced undergraduate credit, under the 
direction of Walter Harding, from June 2U to July 
13, with a field stay in Concord. Inquiries 
should be directed to the Chairman of the English 
Department at that address. 

Dr. Richard Blumenthal Columbia University Medi- 
cal School, 630 West 168th St., New York 10032, 
points out that Perry Smith, one of the IN COLD 
BLOOD murderers is said to have written Truman Ca- 
pote a letter quoting from Thoreau, "And I have 
come to realize that life is the father and death 
is the mother." Can anyone locate that quotation 
in Thoreau' s writings for him? 

The rcent off -Broadway musical "Now Is the Time 
for All Good Men" by Gretchen Cryer and Nancy Ford 
had as its central theme the effect of a small town 
Indiana schoolteacher's attempting to teach his 
pupils Thoreau* s concept of civil disobedience. 
The score for the show has been recorded by Colum- 
bia Records. 

Lawrence Richardson of Concord points out to us 
that the Gleason map of the Thoreau country contains 
an error. #78 for the Ledum Swamp is incorrect. 
It is another swamp east, across the road, and the 
brook near "C" runs out of it. Incidentally, the 
Thoreau Lyceum (Belknap St., Concord) has recently 
reissued the Gleason map on paper suitable for 
framing. 

The 1968 caleddar for the Boston papermekers 
Tileston & Hollingsworth includes a drawing of 
Thoreau and a quotation from WALDEN for its March 
page. 

Eugene Timpe of Penn. State Univ. is editing an 
anthology of essays on Thoreau' s influence abroad. 



ADDITIONS TO THE THOREAU BIBLIOGRAPHY WH 

Banks, Russell. "The Adjutant Bird." LILIABULERO 
[P.O.Box 1027, Chapel Hill, N.C.], I (Fall, 1967) 
7-10. On shipping ice from Walden. 

Charming, William Ellery the Younger. THE COLLECTED 
POEMS OF. Edited, with an intro. by Walter Hard- 
ing. Gainesville, Fla. : Scholars' Facsimiles & 
Reprints, 1967. 1026pp. Contains all Charming' s 
poems about Thoreau. 

Coffey, Raymond R. "Thoreau Is Hero of Saigon Stu- 
dents Who Dodge Viet War Draft." BOSTON GLOBE. 
Jan. 10, 1968. Syndicated in many newspapers. 

Condry, William. MAHAMANA THORO. Trans, by Sun- 
darji Gokalji Betai. Bombay: Vora, 1962. 116pp. 

. THORO. Trans, by Matilal Das. Calcutta: 

M.C.Sarkar, 1962. 93pp. 

— — -. TORO. Trans, by K.M.George. Madras: Orient 
Longmans, 1962. 140pp. 

Costa, Dick. "1959' s Joe Meets 1859* s Henry (Thoreau) 
UTICA OBSERVER-DISPATCH [N.Y. ] Jan.21, 1959. The 
last of a series of three articles. 

Derleth, August. COLLECTED POEMS 1937-1967. New 
York: Candlelight Press, 1967. 302pp. Reprints 
all his many poems about Thoreau. 

. UNE CONSCIENCE REVOLTEE: LA VIE d 1 HENRY D. 

THOREAU. Trans, into French by Genevieve Brallion- 
Zeude. [Paris]: Nouveaux Horizons, 1966. 230pp. 

Dittmer, Bernice. THOREAU: EMERSON'S AMERICAN SCHOL- 
AR. Texas Western College, 1965. 184pp« Unpub- 
lished M.A. thesis. 

DOWN EAST. "Thoreau Island." Oct. 1967. p. 19. On 
the naming of an island in GranS Lake Matagamon in 
Maine for Thoreau. 

Eaton, Richard J. "Thoreau as a Botanist: Two Anec- 
dotes." NEW ENGLAND WILD FLOWER NOTES. Winter, 
1968. 

Fenn, Mary R. "Mr. Thoreau and Concord Today." NEW 
ENGLAND WILD FLOWER NOTES. Winter, 1968. 

Filippo, Luis Di. "Thoreau y la Libertad Esencial 
del Hombre." CLARIN [Buenos Aires], Sept. 14, 
1967. 

Fukuda, Mitsuharu. "Thoreau in Japan." RISING GEN- 
ERATION [Tokyo], CXIII (Oct. 1967), 645-6. Text 
in Japanese. 

Gattego, Candido Perez. EL HEROE SOLITARIO EN LA 
NOVELA AMERICANA. Madrid: Prensa Espanola, 196? 
Contains a chapter on Thoreau. 

Greenberg, Abe. "Cliff Robertson and Thoreau." TRI- 
BUNE ADVERTISER [N. Hollywood, Calif.] Jan. 25, 
1968. On Thoreau as a hero of today's teen-agers. 

Grimnes, Ole Kristian. THOREAU OG VAR EGEN TJJJ. 
Oslo: De Forente Staters Informasjonstjeneste, 
[1962], 19pp. 

Harding, Walter. "Daniel Ricket son's Copy of 

WALDEN." HARVARD LIBRARY BULLETIN, XV (Oct. 1967), 
4.01-11, Reproduces a hitherto unpublished cartoon 
of Thoreau by Ricketson. Your secretary has extra 
copies which he will send on request as long as the 
supply lasts. 

Higashiyama, Masayoshi. "Thoreau and the Present 
Time." RISING GENERATION [Tokyo], CXIII (Oct. 
1967) , 636-8. Text in Japanese. 

Hoover, Ira. "Henry David Thoreau." UMBRAL [Paris], 
1967? Trans, into Spanish by V. Munoz. 

Jenkins, Lloyd S. "How Bird Pattern Differs from 
Thoreau' s Day." WORCESTER [Mass. ] TELEGRAM. Dec. 
24, 1967. 

Kasegawa, Koh, "Nature and Poetic Thought of Tho- 
reau." RISING GENERATION [Tokyo], CXIII (Oct. 
1967), 64.2-4-. Text in Japanese. 



Krutch, Joseph Wood. "Henry David Thoreau and So- 
ciety Today." BULL. THE AMER. ACAD. OF ARTS & 
SCIENCES, XXI (Oct. 1967), 3-12. The Academy 
has supplied your secretary with some extra 
copies which he will send out on request as long 
as the supply lasts. 

Matthiessen, F.O. AMERICAN RENAISSANCE. New York: 
Oxford, [1967], 678pp. Paperback reissue of this 
magaificent study of Thorsau and others. 

McGill, Frederick T., Jr. CHANNING OF CONCORD: A 
LIFE OF WILLIAM ELLERY CHANNING II. New Bruns- 
wick: Rutgers, 1967. 219pp. The first book- 
length biography of Thoreau' s closest friend. We 
all have been wait ing for years for Prof. McGill *s 
study — and it is worth the wait. Filled with all 
sorts of new information. Essential reading for 
anyone who wishes to understand Thoreau' s back- 
ground. Advances the interesting thesis that 
Charming* s eccentricities helped to temper Tho- 
" reau's own. 

Milne, Louis J. & Margery J. "Henry David Thoreau: 
Dreamer." in FAMOUS NATURALISTS. New York: Dodd 
Mead, 1952. pp. 99-106. 

Moldenhauer, Joseph J. "The Rhetorical Function 
of Proverbs in WALDEN." JOURN. OF AMER. FOLK- 
LORE, LXXX (April, 1967), 151-9. 

Munoz, Vladimir. CORRESPONDENCIA SELECTA DE JOSEPH 
ISHILL. Mexico City: Ediciones Tierra y Libertad, 
1967. Frequent comments on Thoreau. 

. "Henry David Thoreau." RUTA [Caracas], V 

(May, 1967), 1-2, 17. Text in Spanish. 

Myers, John M. "A Check-list of Items Published by 
the Private Press of Edwin B. Hill." AMER. BOOK 
COLLECTOR, XVIII (Oct. 1967), 22-7. Many of Hill's 
Thoreau editions described. In same issue: Adrian 
Goldstone, "The Search for Edwin B. Hill," p. 19; 
G.H.Muir, "Edwin Bliss Hill," pp. 20-21. 

NEW YORK TIMES. "Rutgers Professor [F.T. McGill] 
Contends Thoreau Was Not a Hippie." Jan. 5, 1968. 

Poger, Sidney. THOREAU: TWO MODES OF DISCOURSE. 
Columbia Univ., 1966. Unpub. Ph.D. dissertation. 

Pyarelal. THOREAU, TOLSTOY AND GANDHI JI. Calcut- 
ta: Benson, 1958. 20pp. 

Saito, George. "Concord and Thoreau," RISING GEN- 
ERATION [Tokyo], CXIII (Oct. 1967), 644-5. Text 
in Japanese. 

Saito, Hikaru. "Thoreau Singing Lively Like a 
Cock." RISING GENERATION, CXIII (Oct. 1967), 
638-9. Text in Japanese. 

Sakamoto, Masayuki. "Retreat to the Original 
Point: A Portrait of Thoreau." RISING GENERA- 
TION, CXIII (Oct. 1967), 640-2. Text Japanese. 

Sanborn, Franklin Ben4amin. THE LIFE OF HENRY 
DAVID THOREAU. Detroit: Gale Research, 1967. 
544pp. $7.80. Reprint of the long unavailable 
1917 biography. 
Skard, Sigmund. "Grunnf jellet i oss: Henry Thoreau" 
in DAD OG DIKT. Oslo: Det Norske Samlaget, 1963. 
pp. 248-61. Text in Norse. 
Smith, Marion Whitney. STRANGE TALES OF ABENAKI 
SHAMANISM. Lewi st on, Me.: Central Maine Press, 
1963. 48pp. Frequent references to Thoreau' s 
Maine trips. 
Smith, Mar jorie W. "Kipling and Thoreau' s Mother 
Figured in History of the Crystal [Restaurant]" 
KEENE [N.H.] SENTINEL. Jan. 3, 1968. 
SPIEGAL, DER. "Thoreau: Pflicht zum Ungehorsam." 
Dec. 4, 1967. On the current influence of "Civil 
Disobedience" in Germany, 
STUDENT REVIEW. "Today's Hippies— Are They Carbon 
Copies of Thoreau?" II (Sept. 1967), 3. 



Thoreau, H.D. HENRI DI THORO YAMCE NIVDAK LEKH. 
Trans, by Pandharinath Balvant Rege. Bombay: G. P. 
Parchure Prakashan Mandir, 1959. Five essays and 
excerpts from his letters. 

. "I heartily accept..." South Norwalk, Conn. : 

Antonio Frasconi, [1966?]. A broadside reprinting 
of the opening lines of "Civil Disobedience," $4.0. 
Edition limited to 50 copies. 

. JOURNAL D'UN HOMME LIBRE. Trans, into French 

by Genevieve Brallion-Zeude. Paris: Nouveaux Hori- 
zons [Editions Seghers], 1965. 214pp. Extracts 
from WALDEN and "Civil Disobedience." 

. MAHATMA THORONI VICARSRSTI. Trans, by Natvar 

Malavi. Bombay: Vora, 1961. iv, 227pp. Selections 
from the writings of Thoreau. 

— . PHILOSOPHE DANS LES B0I3, UN. Trans, by R. 

Michaud et S. David. [Paris]: Vent d'Oeust, 1967. 
283pp. Selections from the JOURNAL, with a pre- 
face by Roger Asselineau. 

. THOECAM SARMA JTVAN. Trans, by Vaman Janardan 

Kunte. Ravanar: Paramdham Vidyapith, 1957. 86pp. 

. UBER DIE PFLICHT ZUM UNGEHORSAM GEGEN DEN 

STA.iT. Trans, into German with an afterword by W. 
E. Ri chart z. Frankfort: Galerie Patio, 1966. 
"Civil Disobedience" in a hand-printed edition of 
150 copies. 

. The Same. Zurich: Diogenes, 1967. 119pp. 

. THE VARIORUM CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE. Annotated 

and with an introduction by Walter Harding. New 
York: Twayne, 1967. 91pp. $3.50. Companion vol- 
ume to THE VARIORUM WALDEN. 

. VALDEN. T r ans. by Ali Abbas Husaini. New 

Delhi: Maktaba Jamia, I960. WALDEN. 

_. VALDAN ATHAVA ARANYAJIVITAM. Trans, by 

Srikrsnasarma. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi, sold 
by Mathrubhomi, Kozhi-Kode, I960. 

—. VITA DI UNO SCRITTORE. Trans, into Italian 

by Biancamaria Tedeschini Lalli. Vicenza: G. Stoc- 
chiero, 1963. 398pp. Neri Pozza Editore edition. 
Thoreau' s JOURNAL. 

. WALDEN. With an introductory note by Will 

H. Dirks. London: Mudie's Select Library Ltd., 
[1920 J. Nen Camelot aeries. 

— — . WALDEN OU LA VIE SANS LiiS BOIS. Intro, and 
trns. into French by G. Landre-Augier. Paris: 
Aubier Editions, 1967. 573pp. A bilingual edition 
with French and English texts on oppositte pages. 

TULSA [Okla.] TRIBUNE. "On Quoting Thoreau." Oct. 
27, 1967. Editorial. 

Wheeler, Ruth R. [Mrs. Caleb], CONCORD: CLIMATE FOR 
FREEDOM. Concord, Mass.: Concord Antiquarian So- 
ciety, 1966. 280pp. $12.50. Edition limited to 
1500 copies. Those who heard Mrs. Wheeler speak at 
out 1967 annual meeting on "Thoreau 1 s Village Back- 
ground" — or who read it in Bulletin 100 — will know 
what to expect from this book from which her lec- 
ture was excerpted. In other words, it is a de- 
lightfully readable account of life in Thoreau 1 s 
home town from the town's establishment to the 
Civil War, based on years of research by the 
authority on Concord history, and embellished with 
100 illustrations. It is a book that no student 
of Thoreau can afford to be without and the type 
of history that every town should have. It may be 
ordered directly from the Antiquarian Society. 

Whitford, Philip & Katherine. "Thoreau, Pioneer E- 
cologist and Conservationist." Trans, into Japan, 
by Koh Kasegawa. SHI TO SAMBUN [Tokyo], XVI (Oct. 
1967), 40-9. 

Woodring, Paul. "Was Thoreau a Hippie?" SATURDAY 
REVIEW. Dec. 16, 1967. p. 68. 



Woodward, C. Donald. Letter to Editor. [New Bed- 
ford, Mass. ] STANDARD TIMES. Jan. 24, 1968. On 
Thoreau' s views and the war in Vietnam. 

We are indebted to the following for information 
used in this bulletin: R.Adams,E.Allison,T. Bailey, 
F.Bramley,A.Butler,N.Cook,K.Cameron,M.Campbell,V. 
Cobb, J.Donovan,R.Epler,L.diFilippo,M.Fenn,F. Flack, 
D.Finley,R.Ganley,L.Hoffman,E.Hunsaker,C.Hoagland, 
R.Harris, D.Kamen-Kaye, J.Krutch,H. Kleinf eld,M.Melt- 
zer,V.Munoz,J.Morine,D.McWilliams,R.Needham,L. 
Richardson,A.Seaburg,R. Schaedle ,E.Smith,M.Sealts, J. 
Stronks,E.Teale,J.Vickers,E. Williams, P.Williams, E. 
Zeitlin. Please keep the secretary informed of new 
Thoreau items as they appear and old ones that he 
has missed. 

The following have recently become life members 
of the Thoreau Society: Mrs. Arthur M. Abe 11, Hast- 
ings-on-Hudson, N.Y.; Mr. & Mrs. E.S.Allison, Dub- 
linf N.H.; Mr. Reed P. Anthony, Jr., Concord, Mass.j 
Mrs. Edward Berlin, Laurelton, N.Y.; Mr. Jon Brew- 
baker, Buchanan, Va.; Miss Vera Burckley, Buffalo, 
N.Y.j Prof. John Burk, Northampton, Mass.; Mr. Ralph 
Chapman, Brattleboro, Vt.; Prof. Edward Clark, Bos- 
ton, Mass.; Dr. Elliot L. Coles, Milwaukee, Wise; 
Prof. R.L.Cook, Middlebury, Vt.; Mr. Eugene Flood, 
Berkeley, Calif.; Mr. Robert Haynes, Baltimore, Md. ; 
Mrs. Roy Hill, Lansdowne, Pa.; Mr. Samuel Hirsch, 
Hartsdale, N.Y. ; Mr. .David Ingerson, Butler, N.J. ; 
Mr. Robert Jacobs, Shippensburg, Pa.; Prof. Buford 
Jones, Durham, N.C.; Mr. Richard Jones, Boulder, 
Col.; Mr. David Kaplitz, Willimantic, Conn.; Mr. T. 
Monroe Kildow, Tifflin, Ohip; Mr. Anton Kovar, Ar- 
lington, Mass.; Mrs. H. Kramer, Pittsford, N.Y.; 
Prof. Berel Lang, Boulder, Col.; Mr-. John Lockard, 
Hollis, N.Y.; Mr. Carl Markle, Jr., Rochester ,Mich; 
Prof. Ernest J. Moyne, NewarB,Del. ; Miss Marilyn R. 
Nicoson, Concord, Mass.; Mr. Richard W. Paulsen, Jr.; 
Carson City, Nev. ; Mr. Roscoe A. Poland, San Diego, 
Calif.; Mr. William L. Reid III, Syracuse, N.Y.; 
Miss Jean E. Schaedle, Flushing, N.Y. 5 Mr. Luke A. 
Schaedle, Huntington Station, N.Y.; Prof. Merton 
Sealts, Madison, Wise; Prof. J. Lyndon Shanley, 
Evanston, 111.; Mr. James 0. Smith, Huntingdon, Pa.; 
and Prof. Paul 0. Williams, Elsah, 111. Life mem- 
bership is now fifty dollars. 

NOMINATING COMMITTEE FOR 1968 . . . 

The nominating committee for the 1968 meeting 
has been appointed by Pres. R.L.Cook. It consists 
of Dr. John Broderick, Manuscripts Division, Libra- 
ry of Congress, Washington, D.C., chairman; Mrs. 
Caleb Wheeler, Fairhaven Road, Concord, Mass.; and 
Mr. G. Russell Ready, Berwick, Ont. Suggestions 
for nominations for president-elect, vice-president, 
secretary-treasurer, and executive committee mem- 
bers should be sent to any members of the nominat- 
ing committee. Their report will be made in the 
spring bulletin. 

A NEW THOREAU MEDAL. . . . 

The Society of Medalists, 325 East 45 St., New 
York, N.Y. 10017, have just issued a new bronze 
medal by Donald R. Miller, with pine trees and 
mountains and the quotation "In wildness is the 
preservation of the world. Thoreau" on one side 
and a swallow, fish, butterfly, snake and mountain 
goat on the other. We find it very attractive.